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文学 | 黑猫

时间:2019-09-15 来源:果妈的小确幸

作者简介

埃德加·爱伦·坡(Edgar Allan Poe,1809~1849),19 世纪美国诗人、小说家和文学评论家,美国浪漫主义思潮时期的代表人物。他在 17 岁时考入大学,却因赌博退学;后来参军进入军校,又因玩忽职守而被开除;此后开始卖文为生,却始终不得志。而对他打击最大的便是爱妻的病故。1842 年,患有肺结核的爱妻穿着白衣坐在竖琴旁唱歌,突然间,胸部血管破裂,大量鲜血从她口中喷涌而出,染红了白衣,美妙的歌声也戛然而止,这是爱伦·坡目睹的最恐怖的 “红死”。从此以后,他一蹶不振,精神失常,整日酗酒,这种彻骨之痛也导致他后来对于死亡主题的探索,《黑猫》便是其哥特小说代表作之一。

爱伦·坡的恐怖小说带有浪漫主义的特色。纵观爱伦·坡的恐怖小说创作,其故事主题大都 “揭示了人类意识及潜意识中的阴暗面”。他的创作原则是其 “效果说” 理论。爱伦·坡认为,无论是创作诗歌还是小说,作家必须讲究效果的统一,必须时刻想到预定的结局,要使每一个情节变得必不可少。

故事梗概

小说《黑猫》以第一人称讲述者的口吻来叙述故事,是一个即将就死的人抱着救赎的心理来坦白自己的所作所为。

故事的主人公本是一个性情温柔善良,喜欢动物的人。他娶了一个和自己性情很像的妻子,这期间他们都尤其喜爱家里养的一只黑猫。无论他走到哪里,黑猫都尾随而至,关系亲密。可几年后,主人公性情大变,嗜酒如命,脾气暴躁,甚至会家暴妻子。对于曾经喜欢的小动物也开始虐待,黑猫也未能幸免。他在一次醉酒后残忍地挖掉了黑猫的一只眼镜,并在不久后,吊死了这只黑猫。

可就在当晚,一场无名大火将主人公的家财烧毁,猫的浮雕的出现使其惶恐,良心的不安驱使他又收养了一只与黑猫十分相像的猫。可这只猫竟在有天无缘无故地失去了一只眼睛,它胸前的白斑图像酷似绞刑架。这一切都让主人公倍受折磨。而就在某一天,这只猫差点绊倒主人公,于是他在一气之下要砍杀这只猫,却失手将前来阻拦的妻子一斧砍死,猫也逃之夭夭。主人公将妻子的尸体封进地窖的墙里来躲避警察的追捕,可没想到猫也被砌进了墙里。当警察到地窖来检查时,黑猫的叫声使警察找到了杀妻的证据。

原文节选

This hideous murder accomplished, I set myself forthwith, and with entire deliberation, to the task of concealing the body. I knew that I could not remove it from the house, either by day or by night, without the risk of being observed by the neighbours. Many projects entered my mind. At one period I thought of cutting the corpse into minute fragments, and destroying them by fire. At another, I resolved to dig a grave for it in the floor of the cellar. Again, I deliberated about casting it in the well in the yard—about packing it in a box, as if merchandize, with the usual arrangements, and so getting a porter to take it from the house. Finally, I hit upon what I considered a far better expedient than either of these. I determined to wall it up in the cellar—as the monks of the middle ages are recorded to have walled up their victims.

For a purpose such as this the cellar was admirably adapted. Its walls were loosely constructed, and had lately been plastered throughout with a rough plaster, which the dampness of the atmosphere had prevented from hardening. Moreover, in one of the walls was a projection, caused by a false chimney, or fire-place, that had been filled, or walled up, and made to resemble the rest of the cellar. I made no doubt that I could readily displace the bricks at this point, insert the corpse, and wall the whole up as before, so that no eye could detect any thing suspicious.

And in this calculation I was not deceived. By means of a crow-bar I easily dislodged the bricks, and, having carefully deposited the body against the inner wall, I propped it in that position, while, with little trouble, I re-laid the whole structure as it originally stood. Having procured mortar, sand, and hair, with every possible precaution, I prepared a plaster which could not be distinguished from the old, and with this I very carefully went over the new brick-work. When I had finished, I felt satisfied that all was right. The wall did not present the slightest appearance of having been disturbed. The rubbish on the floor was picked up with the minutest care. I looked around triumphantly, and said to myself— Here at least, then, my labor has not been in vain.

词汇积累

hideous 令人惊骇的;极其丑陋的,可怕的
forthwith 即时;即刻,毫不拖延地
deliberation 考虑,深思熟虑
merchandize 商品,货物;销售,买卖
expedient 应急有效的,权宜之计的;方便的
monk 修道士,僧侣
plaster 涂以灰泥;在…上敷贴膏药;减轻;黏贴
dislodge 把…逐出,驱逐;把……移动
procure 取得,获得;实现,完成;导致
mortar 砂浆;迫击炮;房产;研钵
triumphantly 胜利;耀武扬威地,得意扬扬地




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